Journeying to the Other Side: Understanding Near-Death Experiences and After-Death Experiences

July 1, 2023 (Last updated on: January 30, 2024)
A man experiencing a near death experience with a bright white light pulling his soul from his body.

Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have fascinated scientists, the religious community, and the general public for over thirty years. The experience occurs when an individual comes close to death and reports an altered and often mystical state of consciousness.

The aftermath of an NDE is known to transform a person’s whole life, leading to deep contemplation of its meaning and purpose. To understand these experiences better, scientists have studied commonalities and differences in observations of those at the brink of death and other factors and theories that might explain what is happening.

NDEs reveal striking similarities in the observations of the dying, despite differences in culture, location, or religion. For instance, many people report seeing a bright light or multiple bright lights, feeling surrounded by spiritual beings, or feeling like they are communicating with religious figures they are familiar with. NDEs have even led to changes in cultural practices and their psychological explanations.

This article aims to dive into the fascinating phenomenon of Near Death Experiences by exploring the common that near-death experiences reveal, scientific theories, cultural factors, and possible explanations to provide a well-rounded understanding.

Near Death Experiences (NDEs)

NDEs typically follow a life-threatening event such as a heart attack, a fall, or physical assault. Feelings of leaving the physical body characterize the experience. They are often accompanied by a sense of being out of the body with vivid details such as features of the surrounding environment.

Many NDEs are characterized by features such as a tunnel or path leading to a bright light and the feeling of traveling through it. The experiences are subject to intense scrutiny, with researchers examining individual reports closely.

Reports of NDEs vary from person to person, with no one NDE being the same. Some people report an almost overwhelming sense of peace and images of their whole life passing before their eyes.

In contrast, others have negative experiences, including encounters with menacing entities. Because of the uniqueness of each person, scientists have had to consider different factors that cause the phenomenon.

Near Death Experiences vs. Cardiac Arrest

While NDEs are often associated with cardiac arrest, there are cases where it occurs without any evident primary cause. In cardiac arrest, blood circulation is cut off, and brain function eventually ceases.

However, NDEs tend to occur after consciousness has left the body, leading some researchers to believe there may be more to NDEs than just brain activity. The most common theory to explain NDEs is the dying brain hypothesis, which proposes that NDEs are the result of the brain going through a series of processes as it shuts down.

The processes experienced could be due to the highly complex interplay already a subscriber of physical and psychological factors that cause an NDE.

The Life Review

One of the most fascinating aspects of Near Death Experiences is the life review. This is a phenomenon where the person experiencing the NDE feels like they are reliving their life, seeing it pass before their eyes like a movie. Near-death experiencers often report seeing their lives in vivid detail during the life review, with the ability to re-experience moments from a new perspective.

The life review often brings up unresolved issues from the person’s past and helps them confront them. As a result, the experience can be profoundly transformative, leading to significant changes in the experiencer’s outlook on life.

While the content of the life review is unique to each person’s life, some common themes tend to emerge. These include relationships with loved ones, opportunities for growth, and moments of personal struggle.

The life review is not always a positive experience, and it can be emotionally challenging. It can bring up feelings of regret, shame, and guilt. However, the results suggest that most people who experience the life review describe it as positive, transformative, and life-affirming.

While the content of the life review is personal, how it is experienced is universal. People who experience the life review describe it as being accurate, vivid, and unambiguous. It is as if they are seeing their lives through the eyes of others or tunnel vision of a higher power.

The life review is considered a vital component of the Near Death Experience because it offers a glimpse into what happens after we die. The life review is believed to be a stepping stone to the transition into the afterlife. The experience forces the person to confront how they lived their life, leading to deep introspection and self-reflection.

The life review is often described as being a unique experience because people report feeling a deep connection to all of humanity. The life review nudges the experiencer to examine his/her role in the world war, leaving them with a sense of responsibility to be their better selves.

Neuroscience and NDEs

NDEs have led to a better understanding of brain function and how it changes as a person goes through the experience. Research has shown that during an NDE, there is brain activity even though the one’s body itself has ceased to operate.

In a 2013 study published in Scientific American, researchers showed that positive NDEs are linked to electrical activity in the left temporal and left frontal regions of the brain where the processing of visual images occurs.

Research has also helped to reveal more about the nature of NDEs. For example, research has suggested that NDEs do not occur in a specific order but instead are characterized by different sequences arranged across different dimensions.

These dimensions include being life-threatening, degree of unexpectedness, extended duration, and changes in cognition or behavior after the experience.

After Death Experiences (ADEs)

After Death Experiences (ADEs) share many similarities with NDEs, they both occur at or near the time of death, and both are transformative experiences. However, one key difference is that ADEs occur after an individual’s death.

ADEs have been commonly reported during moments of bereavement when loved ones pass on. They are often very vivid and intense experiences that bring a sense of unconditional love and wholeness.

While the experience of an ADE can vary, individuals often describe seeing a bright light, feeling a sense of calm and tranquility, various out-of-body experiences, and encountering deceased loved ones or spiritual beings.

Some ADE experiencers report seeing their life flash before their eyes or entering a realm of pure consciousness where they gain knowledge of universal truths. Despite the similarities between ADEs and NDEs, research on ADEs remains limited due to the logistical difficulties of collecting and verifying data after a person has died.

The Role of Culture and Religion

Cultural expectations and religious beliefs can significantly influence the interpretation of NDEs. Studies have shown that people from different cultures and religions report different experiences during NDEs.

For example, some people report seeing religious figures or angels, while others report seeing deceased loved ones or nothing. Cultural differences can also be seen in how people describe the sensation of leaving their physical body, with some reporting the sensation of being out of the body and floating or hovering. In contrast, others describe feeling pulled or dragged out of their body.

Religious beliefs can also impact the quality of the NDE. People who have strong religious beliefs often report more positive NDEs. They also tend to describe their experiences in religious terms, using language and concepts specific to their faith.

However, even people who are not religious can have positive NDEs, suggesting that the experience is not limited to those with specific beliefs.

Skepticism and Criticism

While many believe in the validity of NDEs and ADEs, skeptics and critics still doubt the authenticity of these experiences. Some skeptics have suggested that NDEs are the result of imagined events, hallucinations, or oxygen deprivation. Critics have also pointed out that the subjective nature of NDEs makes it challenging to use scientific methods to study them.

However, research has shown that NDEs cannot be dismissed easily. Studies have found that people from different cultures and belief systems report similar experiences during NDEs, which suggests that the experience is not purely subjective.

In addition, research has measured physiological changes in the body during NDEs, such as changes in brain function leaving the body, and electrical activity, which add further credibility to the phenomenon.


In conclusion, Near Death Experiences, and After Death Experiences have many similarities and challenged our understanding of consciousness, death, and the afterlife. While the nature of these experiences remains elusive and difficult to study, research has provided compelling evidence that NDEs and ADEs are natural phenomena that profoundly impact those who experience them.

As science continues to advance, researchers hope to uncover the truth about what happens to consciousness after death. However, regardless of whether or not we can fully understand the nature of NDEs and ADEs, the experiences remain a source of fascination and wonder for many people.

For those who have experienced NDEs or ADEs, the experiences can provide a sense of hope and meaning and transform their lives in significant ways as we continue to explore the mysteries of the human experience. Near Death Experiences and After Death Experiences remain an area of continued interest and importance for scientists and people of all beliefs and backgrounds.


Can you get PTSD from a near-death experience?

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after a traumatic event, such as a life-threatening experience. Still, not everyone who experiences a traumatic event develops PTSD. Regarding Near Death Experiences (NDEs), the research on the topic is mixed.

Some studies have indicated that some people with NDEs may develop PTSD, but most NDErs did not experience any long-term negative effects. These adverse effects, if present, could be related to the fear, confusion, and disorientation the person may have experienced during the life-threatening event that preceded the NDE.

PTSD can develop due to different types of trauma, including experiences of violence, abuse, or severe accidents, and not all people who survive these traumatic events develop PTSD. Whether or not a person who has had an NDE develops PTSD appears to depend on individual factors, such as their level of resilience and the context of the NDE itself.

Additionally, some people with NDEs report profound positive transformation, such as increased spirituality, compassion, and a greater sense of purpose in life. The transformative element of NDEs may even have a healing effect, which could mitigate any potential negative impact it may have had on the individual.

Overall, while it is possible to develop PTSD after a near-death experience, it appears to be a rare occurrence. Many individuals report positive experiences and long-term benefits from their NDEs.

What is a near-death incident?

A near-death incident is an experience in which a person comes close to dying but survives. These experiences can range from car accidents and medical emergencies to nearly drowning or coming close to a fatal fall.

A near-death incident can sometimes result in a near-death experience. The individual reports experiencing certain common phenomena, such as tunnel vision, seeing a bright light, or feeling detached from the physical body or the physical world.

What is post-death experience?

Post-death experience (PDE) is a term used to describe a wide range of experiences people report having after the death of a loved one. PDEs can include vivid dreams, visions, and other sensory experiences involving the deceased person. These experiences can occur shortly after the death, or they can occur months or even years later.

PDEs are typically seen as a way for individuals to process their grief and come to terms with losing a loved one. Many people find comfort in these experiences and can offer a sense of connection to the deceased person. However, others may find them upsetting or unsettling, mainly if they involve disturbing or frightening imagery.

Like NDEs and ADEs, PDEs are a subject of ongoing research and debate. While many people report having these experiences, they remain a topic of skepticism and scientific inquiry. As with NDES and ADES, the explanation for these experiences remains unclear, and their specific nature varies from one person to another.

Where will we go after we die?

Many religions teach that the soul lives on after death and that good souls will be rewarded with an afterlife of happiness and peace, while evil souls will be punished. Some believe that an afterlife is a place of reunion with deceased loved ones, a paradise-like existence, or a place of rest until Judgment Day. Other beliefs suggest reincarnation, where individuals pass on to a new life after death, or that the afterlife continues the soul’s journey in another realm.

Ultimately, whether or not one believes in the afterlife is a personal matter, and varied cultural and religious beliefs have explored what happens to the soul after death. However, the mystery of what happens after death remains a subject of intrigue and wonder for many. Still, beyond the mystery, humanity might be unable to construct a complete understanding of the universe’s workings.